Continued nursing education in low-income and middle-income countries: a narrative synthesis

Continued nursing education in low-income and middle-income countries: a narrative synthesis

Journal:

BMJ Global Health

Author(s):

Sara Anderson

Date Published:
Training and capacity building
OPEN PUBLICATION

Introduction: Continued nursing education and development can reduce mortality and morbidity of patients and can alleviate the shortage of healthcare workers by training of nurses for high-demand skill sets. We reviewed patterns of educational interventions and strategies in initiating behaviour change, improving patient outcomes or knowledge for nurses in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs).

Methods: The study searched the MEDLINE (PubMed), Embase, CINAHL, Google Scholar and Web of Science databases. The study included interventional studies on continued nursing education from 2007 to 2017. Of the 6216 publications retrieved, 98 articles were included and analysed by three independent reviewers.

Results: Of the 98 studies that met inclusion criteria, five were randomised controlled trials, two were qualitative in design and the remaining 91 were quasi-experimental, before-and-after studies. Of these studies, the median sample size of participants was 64, and the majority were conducted in Asia (53.1%). During the 10-year study period, 20.4% was conducted in 2015, the highest proportion, with a general increase in number of studies over time from 2007 to 2017. Main themes that arose from the review included train-the-trainer models, low-dose/high-frequency models, use of multiple media for training, and emphasis on nurse empowerment, strong international partnerships, and the integration of cultural context. Overall, the studies were limited in quality and lacked rigorous study design.

Conclusion: Continued nursing education in LMICs is essential and effective in improving nurses’ knowledge base, and thus patient outcomes and quality of care. Long-term, randomised studies are needed to understand how training strategies compare in impact on nurses and patients.

Potentially Avertable Child Mortality Associated with Surgical Workforce Scale-up in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Global Study

Potentially Avertable Child Mortality Associated with Surgical Workforce Scale-up in Low- and Middle-Income Countries: A Global Study

Journal:

World Journal of Surgery

Author(s):

Scott Corlew

Date Published:
Training and capacity building
Economic impact and cost effectiveness
Quality Improvement
OPEN PUBLICATION

Background: Expansion of access to surgical care can improve health outcomes, although the impact that scale-up of the surgical workforce will have on child mortality is poorly defined. In this study, we estimate the number of child deaths potentially avertable by increasing the surgical workforce globally to meet targets proposed by the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery.

Methods: To estimate the number of deaths potentially avertable through increases in the surgical workforce, we used log-linear regression to model the association between surgeon, anesthetist and obstetrician workforce (SAO) density and surgically amenable under-5 mortality rate (U5MR), infant mortality rate (IMR), and neonatal mortality rate (NMR) for 192 countries adjusting for potential confounders of childhood mortality, including the non-surgical workforce (physicians, nurses/midwives, community health workers), gross national income per capita, poverty rate, female literacy rate, health expenditure per capita, percentage of urban population, number of surgical operations, and hospital bed density. Surgically amenable mortality was determined using mortality estimates from the UN Inter-agency Group for Child Mortality Estimation adjusted by the proportion of deaths in each country due to communicable causes unlikely to be amenable to surgical care. Estimates of mortality reduction due to upscaling surgical care to support the Lancet Commission on Global Surgery (LCoGS) minimum target of 20-40 SAO/100,000 were calculated accounting for potential increases in surgical volume associated with surgical workforce expansion.

Results: Increasing SAO workforce density was independently associated with lower surgically amenable U5MR as well as NMR (p < 0.01 for each model). When accounting for concomitant increases in surgical volume, scale-up of the surgical workforce to 20-40 SAO/100,000 could potentially prevent between 262,709 (95% CI 229,643-295,434) and 519,629 (465,046-573,919) under 5 deaths annually. The majority (61%) of deaths averted would be neonatal deaths.

Conclusion: Scale up of surgical workforce may substantially decrease childhood mortality rates around the world. Our analysis suggests that scale-up of surgical delivery through increase in the SAO workforce could prevent over 500,000 children from dying before the age of 5 annually. This would represent significant progress toward meeting global child mortality reduction targets.

Economic Valuation of the Global Burden of Cleft Disease Averted by a Large Cleft Charity

Economic Valuation of the Global Burden of Cleft Disease Averted by a Large Cleft Charity

Journal:

World Journal of Surgery

Author(s):

Scott Corlew

Date Published:
Cleft
OPEN PUBLICATION

Background: This study attempts to quantify the burden of disease averted through the global surgical work of a large cleft charity, and estimate the economic impact of this effort over a 10-year period.

Methods: Anonymized data of all primary cleft lip and cleft palate procedures in the Smile Train database were analyzed and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) calculated using country-specific life expectancy tables, established disability weights, and estimated success of surgery and residual disability probabilities; multiple age weighting and discounting permutations were included. Averted DALYs were calculated and gross national income (GNI) per capita was then multiplied by averted DALYs to estimate economic gains.

Results: 548,147 primary cleft procedures were performed in 83 countries between 2001 and 2011. 547,769 records contained complete data available for the study; 58 % were cleft lip and 42 % cleft palate. Averted DALYs ranged between 1.46 and 4.95 M. The mean economic impact ranged between USD 5510 and 50,634 per person. This corresponded to a global economic impact of between USD 3.0B and 27.7B USD, depending on the DALY and GNI values used. The estimated cost of providing these procedures based on an average reimbursement rate was USD 197M (0.7-6.6 % of the estimated impact).

Conclusions: The immense economic gain realized through procedures focused on a small proportion of the surgical burden of disease highlights the importance and cost-effectiveness of surgical treatment globally. This methodology can be applied to evaluate interventions for other conditions, and for evidence-based health care resource allocation.

Palatal fistula risk after primary palatoplasty: a retrospective comparison of humanitarian operations and tertiary hospitals

Palatal fistula risk after primary palatoplasty: a retrospective comparison of humanitarian operations and tertiary hospitals

Journal:

The Lancet

Author(s):

Scott Corlew

Date Published:
Cleft
OPEN PUBLICATION

Background

Humanitarian surgical organisations provide cleft palate repair for patients without access to surgical care. Despite decades of experience, very little research has assessed the outcomes of these trips. This study investigates the fistula rate in patients from two cohorts in rural China and one in the USA.

Methods

This retrospective study compared the odds of fistula presentation among three cohorts whose palates were repaired between April, 2005, and November, 2009. The primary cohort included 97 Chinese patients operated on in China by surgeons from ReSurge International. A second Chinese cohort of 250 patients was operated on at Huaxi University Hospital by Chinese surgeons. The third cohort of 120 patients from the University of California San Francisco (UCSF) was included for comparison over the same time period; data was taken from medical records. Age, fistula presentation, and Veau Class were compared between the three cohorts with χ2 tests. Logistic regression was used to analyse predictors of fistula presentation among the three cohorts. This study received institutional review board approval from the UCSF, the Harvard School of Public Health, and physicians at Huaxi University Hospital, and written consent was obtained from study participants in China.

Findings

The fistula risk was 35·4% in ReSurge patients, 12·8% for patients at Huaxi University Hospital, and 2·5% for patients at UCSF (p<0·001). At the time of surgery 15·5% of the ReSurge patients were younger than 2 years old, whereas 90·8% of the UCSF children and 41·6% of the Huaxi children were (p<0·001). In the ReSurge cohort, 20·6% of patients had a Veau class of I or II, wheras 40·8% and 58·9% of UCSF and Huaxi patients, respectively, were in class I or II (p<0·001). Age and Veau Class were associated with fistula formation in a univariate analysis. (Veau Class III or IV vs I or II, odds ratio [OR] 6·399 [95% CI 3·182–12·871]; age, OR 1·071 [95% CI 1·024–1·122]). A multivariate model controlling for the surgical group, age at palatoplasty, and sex showed an association between Veau Class and the odds of fistula presentation (Class III or IV vs I or II, OR 5·630 [95% CI 2·677–11·837). In this model, UCSF patients and Huaxi patients had 0·064 and 0·451 times the odds of developing a fistula, respectively, compared with ReSurge patients (p<0·001 both).

Interpretation

Chinese children undergoing palatoplasty on surgical missions have higher post-operative odds of palatal fistula than do children treated by local physicians. Children in low-resource settings have higher complication rates than do children in high-resource settings. Older age at palatoplasty and a Veau class III and IV are associated with post-palatoplasty fistula. Furthermore demographic, socioeconomic, and cultural differences could play a part in palatoplasty fistula outcomes between these three populations. More research is needed to determine the effects of post-operative care, the skill of the providers, and the technique used in the surgery that play a role on fistula outcomes after primary palatoplasty, particularly in low-resource environments.